Advanced Orthopedics & Sport Medicine

Specialized Orthopedics Services Since 2005

Knee Anatomy and Function

Dive into knee anatomy, a complex hinge joint uniting bones, cartilage, ligaments & tendons. Understand its function, enabling movement, stability & shock absorption.


    The knee is the largest joint in the body and is central to nearly every routine activity. The knee joint is formed by the ends of 3 bones: the lower end of the thigh bone (femur), the upper end of the shin bone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). Thick, tough tissue bands called ligaments connect the bones and stabilize the joint. A smooth, plastic like lining called cartilage covers the ends of the bones and prevents them from rubbing against each other, allowing for flexible and nearly frictionless movement. Cartilage also serves as a shock absorber, cushioning the bones from the forces between them. Finally, a soft tissue called synovium lines the joint and produces a lubricating fluid that reduces friction and wear

    Common Conditions

    • Arthritis
    • Dislocation
    • Fracture to the patella (kneecap)
    • Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)
    • Meniscus tears
    • Ripped or torn tendons
    • Trauma to the cartilage or bone

    Treatment Options

    • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction
    • Arthroplasty
    • Arthroscopy of the knee
    • Knee replacement and revision
    • Ligament repair and reconstruction
    • Meniscal repair